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  • Migration

    This module explores moments and places where the movement of people  - across oceans, across continents, within and between nations – is a major force in history.   Courses from other departments and programs that incorporate the theme of migration may also count toward this module.
  • Nation and Ethnicity

    The nation has long been a powerful form of common allegiance, and the various changing definitions of nationhood—which have included religion, culture, language, Ethnicity, and race—have been vehicles both of liberation and enslavement, and as such, catalysts for soaring achievement and destructive conflict alike. The nation-state has been the focus of much modern historical writing, though nations and ethnicities without states were long excluded from these narratives. Recent trends in historiography seek to go beyond the nation-state to recover these pasts. This module allows students to explore ethnicity and national identity unrestricted by statehood, time or geography. With the approval of the student’s advisor, courses from other departments and programs that incorporate the nation or ethnicity may count toward this module.
  • North America

    Courses in this module offer students the opportunity to research topics from Indigenous peoples of North America in the pre-contact era all the way to the U.S. and Canada in early 21st century. In addition to four chronological surveys (History 237, 238, 239, 240), the module can includes classes on the history of science and technology, ecology, intellectual life, religion, economy, industrialization, labor, race, ethnicity, food, politics, reform movement, gender, photography, prison systems, atomic bomb 1945, the Cold War, and local history, among other subjects.
  • Race

    一道本不卡免费高清This module examines the ideology of race, the belief system by means of which humans are classified and valued according to hereditary variations. Majors may take courses that engage the history and experiences of racially subordinated population groups as well as the theories and methods that have determined such relations.

  • Religion

    This module includes History 323 (Religion and History), a general theory course taught by different instructors; and relevant courses currently taught on Indian religions, religions of the Middle East, Judaism, Christianity, Secularism , and Buddhism. The module may also include courses originating in the Religion Department and cross listed in History.
  • Revolutions and Social Movements

    This module asks students to explore processes of significant political and social change, revolutionary situations, and the thought and action of revolutionaries.  What forces made possible the mobilization of peoples into movements? How do broad social grievances transform into concrete political goals? Students have the opportunity to investigate revolutions and social movements in global, national, and local contexts across time and place.
  • Science, Technology, and Medicine

    From university research laboratories to hospitals to electronic computers and nuclear weapons, science, technology, and medicine are highly visible features of the contemporary world.  Courses in this module naturally explore some histories of well-known bodies of scientific knowledge, gadgets, and therapies that loom so large in our lives today.  But they also examine broader histories about the production and transmission of knowledge; the interactions between science and popular culture, religion, political and institutional contexts, or the broader history of ideas; ways of making, doing, and intervening in the world, from clay tablets to recombinant DNA; and ways of conceptualizing and maintaining our bodies and our health.
  • Intellectual History

    This module offers students the opportunity to study the thought and ideas of diverse cultures, places, and times across world history.  The study of world thought highlights that there are multiple approaches to ideas even within a single geographical area, not just across continents.  Indeed, the ideas themselves could be political, religious, and/or scientific.  Students in this module will be able to address the question of the force of ideas on society.  The courses in this module are designed to train students in many of the significant written, material, and visual texts of the past, to examine the role of the intellectual in society, to pose questions concerning the philosophy of history, and to present alternative theories of reading texts.
  • Visual and Material Culture

    This module offers students the opportunity to research the visual and material histories of the past, to engage current debates in this emerging historical field, and to learn how to apply new methods of historical interpretation.  Topics of special interest to our History faculty include, for example: the history of art and architecture, visual culture and commodities; newspaper illustration; political cartoons; advertisements; photography and print culture; maps and architectural drawings; scientific and medical illustration; and historical documentary film.
  • War and Violence

    Conflict has shaped human society for millennia, and it played a central role in the migration of people, the emergence and evolution of states, the development of politics, the rise of new technology, and the spread of empire. War and violence have also been indelible personal experiences that have shaped ethnic, religious and national identities, just as their aftermath has helped define international legal norms. This module offers history majors an opportunity to examine the history of war and violence as it affected individuals, specific groups and whole societies unrestricted by timeframe or geography.
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